THE HISTORY OF CAPE VERDE

According to official sources, Cape Verde was discovered in 1460 by Italian and Portuguese navigators. When these first explorers arrived on the islands, they were uninhabited, which was favorable for their occupation and settlement as from 1462. In that same period, they founded the city of Ribeira Grande on the island of Santiago (now Cidade Velha). For the construction, native slaves were brought from the West African coast. Hence, Cape Verde started to function as a commercial and strategic warehouse, particularly in the slave traffic between the Americas, Europe and Africa. Soon, the archipelago became a center of concentration and dispersion of men, plants and animals.

Later, other explorers also landed in Cape Verde, as Charles Darwin, a naturalist scientist who arrived in the islands in 1932. He carried out some studies on his evolutionary theories, using as reference, certain types of plants and animals found only in climatic conditions similar to that of Cape Verde. To go deeper, visit his story on the website Darwin Online.

Sir Francis Drake, English corsair, plundered the city of Ribeira Grande de Santiago 3 times between 1576 to 1586. Until 1747, the islands remained under Portuguese rule and prospered until the arrival of the most severe droughts and, consequently, the famine. Overexploitation of livestock and fierce deforestation did nothing but make things worse, preventing the low residual moisture in the soil from fertilizing the fields. Famine and drought have occurred several times in the archipelago between 1580 and 1950, resulting in the death of hundreds of thousands of people, the two worst of which occurred between 1941-43 and 1947-48 thus decimating more than 45,000 lives. At the time of the incident, Portugal did not send any aid. The local economy was based mainly on the slave trade, which suffered a more pronounced decline in the late 19th century, leading the country to move to a different and more modern economic activity, based on agriculture and fishing.

Between 1800 and 1900, many Cape Verdeans emigrated to the United States, attracted by the American dream and the practice of some American whalers in recruiting sailors from the islands of Fogo and Brava. At the end of the 18th century, the islands became an important point in the Atlantic for the supply of coal, water and animals, thus requesting an increasing expansion of maritime transport. However, during the first half of the 20th century the drought continued and Portugal remained indifferent. Thousands of people died of hunger. Although at that time Cape Verdeans were mistreated by their rulers, some were privileged with education (unlike other Portuguese colonies in Africa) when the first high school was established. At the time of the declaration of independence, about 30% of the population was literate, compared to 5% of other Portuguese colonies. From 1960, Guinea-Bissau had started the longest war of liberation in Africa that Cape Verdeans also took part in, against the Portuguese dictator, Salazar.

Cape Verde became independent in 1975 and despite never having lived a single day of war in the archipelago, it participated a lot in the process of decolonization of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde. In 1980, despite the mild climate and the doubling of plantations, the drought still persisted. This led the country to seek international aid for food supplies. Finally, in 1991, there were the first multiparty elections and the MPD (Movement for Democracy) party won with 70% of the votes, under the leadership of Carlos Veiga as prime minister and António Monteiro, president of the Republic. Both were re-elected the following year with the new Constitution. In the early 1990s, there were some divisions within the party (because of slow economic growth due to drought), until 1995, when the party was re-elected in the country.

A new president and a new prime minister were elected in 2001, returning the African Party for the independence of Cape Verde (PAICV, opposition party) to power. In 2002, for the first time, the government asked the United Nations for food aid due to the new drought. About 160,000 people were saved from hunger by the world food program in 2003. Some countries and organizations such as Portugal, France, the Netherlands, the World Bank and ECOWAS contributed strongly to finance some of the policy projects of the then new Prime Minister José Maria Neves. The strong investment in tourism, with the construction of necessary infrastructures (for example, international airports, ports and highways), expansion of construction plans and agricultural land, as well as an adjusted economic policy in fishing and tourism started to bring growth and well-being in Cape Verde, which had recently been discovered by tour operators around the world and reinforced by substantial private investments.

The future of the country is in the hands of young Cape Verdeans and of good politics: if the first has not been influenced too much by globalization, the second will be able to mediate between development and sustainability, Cape Verde is destined to become one of the most desired destinations of the world.

Discovery of Cape Verde

1456

Antonio da Noli discovers the archipelago. At the time, it was at the service of the Portuguese empire and the islands were completely uninhabited.

Beginning of Portuguese exploration

1462

The first city was established, “Ribeira Grande de Santiago”, known today as “Cidade Velha”.

1498

During its third ocean voyage, Christopher Columbus visits the island of Boavista.

1747

The first great famine and drought in Cape Verde. At that time the Portuguese government did not send any assistance. The slave trade began to decline and many Cape Verdeans were recruited by american whalers.

Emigration and Diaspora

1800 - 1900

A part of the Cape Verdean population moved to Boston. A small part emigrated to other states in Latin America and Europe, including Italy, France, the Netherlands and Belgium.
It is currently estimated that the population of Cape Verde abroad is 3 times greater than that resident in the country.

1832

The scientist Charles Darwin arrives in Cape Verde and elaborates some of his theories on evolution, studying some plants and animals of the place.

1956

Amilcar Cabral, born in Bafatá, Guinea Bissau, founded, together with other colleagues, the “African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde” (PAIGC) in 1959.

1975

With the declaration of independence from Portugal, Cape Verde becomes one of the few nations to have achieved this without a day of war on their lands.

Birth of the Republic of Cape Verde

1975

Cape Verde becomes part of ONU.

1981

PAICV replaces PAIGC, as the only party present in Cape Verde.

1991

António Mascarenhas Monteiro becomes the first president elected with multiparty elections.

1992

The drafting of the new Constitution provides for a multiparty system. Birth of MPD, (Movement for Democracy).

1996

António Mascarenhas Monteiro is re-elected.

2001

PAICV wins the new elections after 20 years of opposition party government.

2006

Cape Verde becomes a member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

2007

Tourism increases on the island of Boavista with the opening of the international airport “Arestides Pereira”, accelerating the island’s development process.

2011

Jorge Carlos Fonseca (MPD) becomes the President of the Republic, although the government is still the opposition party (PAICV).

2016

Ulisses Correia e Silva became Prime Minister with the new elections, replacing 16 years of the PAICV government, while Jorge Carlos Fonseca was re-elected to the Presidency of the Republic.